Collective orientation barrier in growth of organic thin films revealed by pMAIRSView Publication
We used p-polarized multiple-angle incidence resolution spectrometry (pMAIRS) to investigate a collective orientation barrier (COB) in the growth of organic semiconductor (OSC) films. We demonstrate a temperature-dependent variation in the growth of pentacene (PEN) on SiO2 films as a model system. The molecular orientation varied from lying to standing as the growth temperature increased. This change suggests that the formation of a standing orientation is thermally activated compared with the lying state. The nucleation of standing-oriented islands occurs by molecular self-assembly at sufficiently high temperatures. Conversely, molecules deposit in a flat-lying state at low temperatures owing to hindrance of the kinetic barrier to reorientation from lying to standing states. The COB is defined as a collective energy barrier for the reorientation processes throughout the growth. The COB is quantitatively estimated from an Arrhenius plot of the probability to form a standing orientation, derived from the dichroic ratio measured by pMAIRS. We found that the COB in the growth of PEN on the SiO2 system was approximately 0.02 eV, which is a key parameter for determining the molecular orientation. A quantitative evaluation of the COB will be applicable to other systems and enable effective control over the molecular orientation of OSC films.
Physical Review Materials
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